This website illustrates how Civil Engineers may make greater use of the Global Patent System to Promote Progress in their Field.
The American Founders included Patent Rights in the United States Constitution to Promote Progress.
Patent Litigation and the Courts
U.S. Patenting
      Patent owners may file patent infringement cases and would-be targeted infringers may seek a Declaratory Judgment in one of the U.S. District Courts.  Patent owners may also file an action in the International Trade Commission (ITC) under 19 USC 1337 to seek injunctive relief against an alleged infringer.    

     The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit hears patent appeals from the U.S. District Courts and the ITC.  Panels of three circuit judges usually decide patent appeals, but all of the Federal Circuit judges may also sit en banc to hear pivotal patent cases, and the en banc Court may overturn decisions by the three-judge panels.    

For patent cases it deems important, the Supreme Court of the United States may grant certiorari for a party appealing a decision of the Federal Circuit.  Although the Supreme Court typically only decides a few patent cases each year, if that many, such high court decisions can understandably send seismic waves through the entire patent community. 
Tappan Zee Bridge in New York
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